While yesterday the one most highly esteemed was he who was able with the greatest selflessness to live clandestinely, he who renounced all personal interests and feelings, he who was capable at any moment of sacrificing his life, now these same qualities of the Russian revolutionary which we used to acclaim must find new application in all posts, however prosaic these may look from outside. But a new army capable of fighting could certainly not grow directly out of them. The first task to be accomplished to this end is the replenishment of the cadres through universal training of the workers in the factories and of the poor peasants in the villages. 14. While, as the working class, we, in Marx’s words, cannot simply take over the old state apparatus in a mechanical way, this does not at all mean that we can get by without any of those elements which entered into the composition of the old state apparatus. But this in no way hindered us from advancing open-eyed to the conquest of power. Trotsky’s magisterial History of the Russian Revolution was published in 1930 when Trotsky had been forced into exile. Hence their dissatisfaction with themselves. That moment was a notable date in the history of the Red Army. In contracting, the Army has not become weaker but, on the contrary, stronger. They think that drawing yesterday’s saboteurs into technical specialist posts threatens the very foundations of the Soviet regime. The resistance of all those technical, administrative and official elements was overcome. These guerrilla tendencies, reflecting the element of peasant spontaneity in the revolution, found their most finished expression among the Left SRs and the Anarchists, but also took possession of a considerable section of the Communists, especially those who came from the peasantry or had formerly been soldiers or NCOs. Leon Trotsky (whose real name was Lev Davidovich Bronstein, 1879-1940, the son of wealthy Jewish parents), was exiled from Russia because of his part in the aborted revolution in 1905 and was a reporter for Novy Mir, a communist paper in New York, from 1916-17.He had an expensive apartment and traveled around town in a chauffeur-driven limousine. At the same time, though, these same conditions transformed Russian commercial, industrial and financial capital into a small, privileged class, few in numbers and cut off from the broad masses of the people, lacking ideological roots in the depths of the people, without a political army of its own. But what was most important was that the commissar was the direct representative of the Soviet power in the Army. He directed the operation of the armed uprising on November 7, when the members of the provisional government were arrested and Soviet rule established. How the Revolution Armed, Volumes 4-5 How the Revolution Armed, Brian Pearce Selections, Leon Trotsky: Author: Leon Trotsky: Translated by: Brian Pearce: Publisher: New Park Publications, 1979: Original from: the University of Michigan: Digitized: Jul 1, 2008 : Export Citation: BiBTeX EndNote RefMan Our analysis, which was confirmed in October, was called utopian. If we were the foremost in the revolutionary battle, as previously we were foremost in the underground work, and then foremost in conquering the posi tions of the enemy class, we must now, in every post that we occupy (I do not forget for one moment that we are now the ruling class), display the greatest conscientiousness, executive sense and creativity – in short, those qualities which are characteristic of a class of genuine builders of a new life. The first attempt to unite the work of the Party cells in the army was made at the end of March 1906, when a conference of the ‘military organizations’ was convened in Moscow. Only if this regular Army is in being can guerrilla units play a positive role on its flanks. Permitting such propaganda in a Communist Party is like permitting Tolstoyan propaganda in the garrison of a besieged fortress. Look and see what is happening now in the Ukraine. He spent much of two years in an armoured train visiting the troops. This ... the formation and crystallization of his distinctive and motivating idea—the permanent revolution— his long feud and final reconciliation with Lenin and Bolshevism, and his role in the October insurrection of 1917. How the Revolution Armed: Military Writings and Speeches of Leon Trotsky: 1918: the Founding of the Red Army (v. 1) [Leon Trotsky] on Amazon.com. Here also we see the effect of past centuries of Russian history, here too make themselves felt those ages when the mass of the people were bound to the land, robbed materially and spiritually, and kept without the opportunity to acquire the most necessary habits of government. mind and organizing mastermind. The third camp was made up of the working class, headed by our Party, and the working masses who were linked with it. From beyond the Volga they prepared to strike at Moscow. In 1917, after the February revolution, the Military Organization developed its influence first in Petrograd and later also at the front (especially in the Northern sector and in the Baltic Fleet). The Commander-in-Chief, Comrade Antonov Ovseënko, moved his troops towards Kiev. We suffer from very great difficulties in the sphere of food supplies – partly because we have been impoverished generally, and partly because all means of transport, accounting and control have broken down. This danger, in so far as there is some justification for it, must compel us as a whole to direct our attention to the lower levels, to the rank-and-file soldiers of the Red Army. He tries to grab for himself everything that he can, he thinks only of himself, and is not disposed to consider the people’s class point of view. His epic defence of the soul of the Revolution against its bureaucratic executioners was a torchlight in the storm. The commissar’s task was, without encroaching on the purely military work of the commander, and in no case lowering his authority as commander, to create conditions such that this authority could not be used against the interests of the revolution. Election of commanders by the units themselves – which were politically ill-educated, being composed of recently mobilized young peasants – would inevitably have been transformed into a game of chance, and would often, in fact, have created favorable circumstances for the machinations of various intriguers and adventurers. These are the difficulties, colossal in their depth, which lie before us, and which we have to overcome at any cost. Revolution was not the product of overnight work. Following the entirely false account in Deutscher’s Prophet Armed Monty Johnstone reproduces all the old nonsense that Trotsky’s views on the permanent revolution derived from Parvus, the famous German Social Democrat, whose slogan “No Tsar but a workers’ government”, Lenin criticised on a number of occasions. The revolution was entirely based upon mobility, the bold stroke, and maneuvering. Our propaganda invariably united the Red Army, while disrupting the enemy’s forces, not by any special technical methods or procedures but by the Communist idea which constituted the content of this propaganda. of the front. We live in a world of violence, and we cannot avoid treating it politically. Only widespread military training of the worker and peasant masses, everywhere that this is at present practically feasible, will make it possible to transform the volunteer cadres into that skeleton which, in a moment of danger, will become clothed with flesh and blood, that is, in reality, with the broad masses of the workers and peasants in arms. But the working class elected its deputies within the framework of its natural places of work – the factories. He was exiled and later assassinated by Soviet agents. The Germans resumed their offensive, and that became the point of departure for a profound turn in the consciousness of the masses: they began to realize that it was necessary to defend ourselves with arms. Most frequently they result from the circumstance that people are occupying positions which they are not fit for. Now, comrades, having overcome the political obstacles, we are faced in real earnest by all these organizational difficulties. No, this is no such thing. We consider that, since the further development of international relations may, in the very near future, once more subject us to severe military trials, we must forthwith create firm and reliable cadres for the Army, and these cannot be formed on the principle of universal compulsory recruitment because we shall not carry out such recruitment in the next two months. The centralized army was declared to be the army of an imperialist state. If the Ukrainian Rada was and still is temporarily victorious over the Soviet power in the Ukraine, this fact is due exclusively to the help given it by the mighty machine of German militarism. It was natural that this peasant mass sought representatives and leaders from outside itself, and it found them among the petty-bourgeois intelligentsia in the Army: among the volunteers, the young, the more or less revolutionary officers – in short, among men of bourgeois origin who possessed certain formal advantages over the mass of peasant soldiers, such as the ability to express their thoughts more or less articulately, such as literacy, and so on. But we, as a factor in this European revolution, as a constituent part of it, must take care to be strong, that is, specifically, to be equipped with an army that, in the first place, will correspond to the spirit of the Soviet regime and, in the second place, will be able to defend that regime and to assist the world revolution. At the same time, hostility towards the ‘men with the golden epaulettes’, meaning the officers, with their noble and intellectual background, was always a characteristic of theirs. The Germans recognised the independence of the Ukraine, and the Rada supplied them with a substantial quantity of foodstuffs. Dictatorship vs. Democracy (Terrorism and Communism) a Reply to Karl Kautsky, by Leon Trotsky [Pseud.] The masses were thrown on to the defensive and the Consequently, comrades, a quite new task is imposed upon the representatives of our Party. Out of Stock. The revolutionary guerrilla leaders took supplies for their units from anything and everything that came their way. But it is obvious to everyone that the dictatorship of the working class, which we forecast, has been realised, and that all those ‘total abstainers’ who saw in our forecasts only utopianism and our subjective desires have turned out to be cast aside by the development of the class struggle in our revolution. To escape persecution many emigrated to Canada at the end of the nineteenth century], [The Czechoslovak Corps was formed in Tsarist Russia from among prisoners of war. But now political power is in the hands of that same working class from whose ranks the Army is recruited. Creating a body of revolutionary commanders is a most difficult task. These were no longer our first helpless attempts: from now on we could fight and win. HOW THE REVOLUTION ARMED Written: 1920. Hence the slightness of the political resistance which our bourgeoisie proved able to put up against us in October, November and the subsequent months, when in particular parts of the country there occurred the revolts of the Kaledinites, the Kornilovites and the Dutovites [10] and of the Ukrainian Rada. The Military Organization of our Party began in 1905 and played a considerable role in developing the revolutionary movement in the army. Its loyalty to the cause of the social revolution is beyond doubt. But we cannot create an Army through an administrative mechanism alone – which is in our case at present as bad as it could possibly be. great rational. Download The Prophet Armed: Trotsky, 1879-1921 by Isaac Deutscher in PDF EPUB format complete free. During the Russian Revolution of 1917, he plotted a coup of the provisional government with Lenin and formed the Red Army, which defeated the anti-Bolshevik White Army in … How the Revolution Armed. Everywhere there must be advanced executants of all functions, all tasks, all the requirements of the Soviet Socialist Republic, and in doing their work they must show all their devotion, all their enthusiasm. Only purely military leadership was left in the hands of the commander himself. Source: Materials and Documents on the History of the Red Army, The Military Writings and Speeches of Leon Trotsky: How the Revolution Armed, Volume III: The Year 1920, Now, with power in our hands, we, the representatives of the working class, must quite clearly and honestly review those internal sins and shortcomings of ours which constitute the greatest danger to the cause of socialist construction. Volume 2: 1919 - How The Revolution Armed - The Southern Front: Denikin's Offensive. But the source of this danger is not the drawing into service of a dozen or so former generals, it has deeper roots. Red Army uniforms from the Civil War period. In this respect we have had undoubted success during the last two years. The revolution, which awakened the human individual out of his oppressed state, naturally, at the start, gave to this awakening an extreme, if you like, an anarchic character. Leon Trotsky awaited the inevitable as he fed his rabbits on the afternoon of August 20, 1940. 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