Biomedical and Surgical Aspects of captive Reptile Husbandry, 2nd edition, vol. Reptiles; Small Mammals; Pigs ; Ruminants; Medications; General Information; Meet the Authors ; Page Menu. In the past, acidosis has been ignored in the hopes that the acid-base disturbance would be resolved as renal perfusion and function was restored and the kidneys then corrected the acidosis. Most kidney infections are treatable, so your reptile may need a course of antibiotics. A renal portal system is present but its functional significance is questionable1. Chicago, IL. Kidney failure may be acute or chronic, and both types can occur at any age. Acute renal failure most often is due to an infection or toxins, including environmental toxins and medications. The lizards both showed significant clinical improvement, and no renal side effects were seen. Bladder stones are commonly seen in many tortoise species and lizards with bladders. In really advanced cases, the tip of the tail, fingers or toes may begin to die and thus turn a different color. In young reptiles, radiography is important to assess bone density. Because of this, it has been recommended that medications should not be injected into the hind legs or tail as they will be conveyed to the kidneys, increasing the possibility of nephrotoxicity for aminoglycosides, and in the case of other drugs, reducing the likelihood of achieving the desired therapeutic effect. Kidney failure is classified as either acute kidney failure, which develops rapidly and may resolve; and chronic kidney failure, which develops slowly and can often be irreversible. This means that bladder urine is not sterile and may not be a true osmotic/electrolyte representation of renal urine. As mentioned, gout is the end result of an inability of a reptile to properly excrete uric acid. These animals tend to present with a history of reduced appetite, poor weight gain or weight loss, and occasionally the owners may report increased drinking in the animal. Rehydration using o.18 % saline + 4 % glucose is recommended at 20 - 40 ml/kg/day i.v. Survival was modest at 2-5 months. The kidneys may or may not be palpable, with or without coelomic/abdominal tenderness or fluid accumulation. Not wanting to eat, lethargy, and sunken eyes are early signs. Medical treatment of gout in human medicine is three-fold: Lower the serum uric acid level with antihyperuricemic drugs such as allopurinol; promote urate excretion with uricosuric drugs such as probenecid; and manage acute gouty arthritis attacks with anti-inflammatory drugs such as colchicine and corticosteroids. Acute Hemorrhagic Diarrhea Syndrome (AHDS or HGE) Addison's Disease (Hypoadrenocorticism) Adrenal Tumor Treatment in … This is likely a major factor in infectious causes of kidney disease. It is important to realize that kidney failure is usually a manageable disease, but if significant damage to the kidneys has already occurred, there are no quick fixes and treatment may be required for the rest of your pet's life. Acute kidney failure is most common i… Calcium and phosphate ions, when present at appropriate concentrations, form insoluble salts in aqueous solutions. Images showing the human trunk, with positions of the organs show, and kidneys seen at the vertebral level of T12 to L3. Kidney (Renal) failure (acute or chronic) occurs when the kidneys no longer function well and the end stage of kidney failure. There is damage to the kidneys and swelling of the abdomen due to fluid accumulation is the most common sign of renal dropsy. (1988). If the reptile is too cold or the room is too dry (often from air conditioning or heating), its kidney metabolism may be slower than needed to move uric acid out of the kidney and into the bladder. … Treatments for kidney failure in cats. Mineralization of the tissues ―another sign of kidney disease―may be detected on X-rays as well. In lizards, the enlargement can be felt just in front of the pelvis. Table # 4. 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An accurate weight of the animal is taken as is the packed cell volume (PCV) and total plasma protein - in an effort to accurately assess hydration status. They are attenuated, reddish-brown and usually divided into lobules. The information contained here is for general purposes only and is not a substitute for advice from your veterinarian. So, the kidney is mostly a device for maintaining water balance in the animal, rather than an organ of excretion. Kidney failure may be acute or chronic, and both types can occ There is no single sign that indicates a tortoise or lizard has a bladder stone. Kidney Failure Average Cost . Cushing’s Disease in Dogs (Hyperadrenocorticism): What Is It? (While green iguanas do eat some animal matter as neonates, adult green iguanas almost entirely eat leaves.). What about kidney failure? People often misjudge how much water desert reptiles need, or do not recognize the impact of their local conditions on their reptiles. As a general rule, kidney infection (pyelonephritis) has a fair prognosis if caught early and treated appropriately. mammalian renal system is that the reptile kidney cannot concentrate urine. In addition, sexually mature male lizards may possess a sexual segment proliferation of the distal tubule. )(1984) Dukes' Physiology of Domestic Animals. Exotic Animal Formulary, 1st edition.Greystone Publications. A biochemical panel to assess kidney function is also important, as many of these animals go on to develop renal failure, which is a poor prognostic sign. Variable changes in urine concentration and electrolyte composition can occur within the bladder or distal colon. The water bowl may be too small for some species; swimming and soaking in the water may be beneficial for reptiles such as green water dragons and green iguanas. The history of illness in acute renal disease is usually relatively rapid onset of depression, lethargy, anoria, and weakness, often with a complete cessation of urate output. Radiographs are then taken at 0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes post injection as needed to monitor the clearing of dye into the urinary system. Again, though normal bladder urine may not be sterile - if a culture and sensitivity reveals a profuse growth of a single organism, then that bacteria may be significant and appropriate antibacterial treatment is indicated. For example, pet bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) and leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) do well in humid Florida without “moisture retreats” or weekly soaks in shallow water baths. What to Expect from your Pet’s Echocardiogram, Antifreeze Additives that are Taste Aversive to Protect Dogs and Cats, Breeding Information for People Who Want to Breed Dogs, Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPCR): First Aid. 1. If calcium levels drop too low, cardiac failure may occur. Renal cysts have been described in reptiles and may occur singly, in small groups, or involve the entire kidney (Zwart, 2006). The goal of this presentation is to provide the practitioner with an overview of renal disease and discuss options to arrive at a definitive diagnosis and determine an appropriate treatment plan. Table 1. Amphibians The amphibian kidney also functions chiefly as a device for excreting excess water. Acute hypercalcemia (i.e. © 2021 MJH Life Sciences and DVM 360. The purpose of the kidneys is to remove toxins from the body. To maintain hydration, your veterinarian may recommend providing a large water bowl for soaking and swimming, as well as you actively soaking the reptile rather than leaving it up to your pet. The blood tests checking the calcium, phosphorus (especially the calcium/phosphorous ratio), and potassium levels can indicate how well the kidney is working. 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Kidney related diseases are a major cause of illness and death in captive lizards. Mid and long-term management of reptiles in renal failure is focused on improvement and modifications to the husbandry, such as the thermal environment, adequate hydration, and a diet that provides a small amount of high-quality protein with low levels of potassium and phosphorus. Little information has been published for their use in reptiles. Vitamin A deficiency leads to changes in the kidney cells, which leads to decreased function and disease. Oral calcium supplements, such as Neo-Calglucon (Nutrobal) are useful for long term calcium therapy. Your veterinarian will start by taking a thorough medical history and give a physical examination. A foul or unusual odor may be noticed at more advanced stages. As mentioned earlier, MRI , which is superior to CT scanning for evaluating soft tissues, can be used - however, because of limited availability and cost - such imaging techniques are not often employed by general practitioners. Herbivorous lizards should not be given any animal or insect protein. Nephrotoxic medications and any other undue stress (i.e., poor husbandry) to the animal should be avoided. When the level of phosphorous becomes too high relative to calcium, it favors the formation of calcium phosphate in the gut, which is minimally absorbed as it is an insoluble salt. Examples of Foods Low & High in Purines & To Promote Acidification. Tenth Edition. The signs that a reptile might have kidney disease are often nonspecific and for that reason, the majority of reptiles are not taken to the veterinarian until the problem is advanced. Many of the reptile vitamins on the market lack vitamin A. 28. 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