A 10-foot deep crust had formed over the river of molten rock running underneath, forming a bridge for the thousands of residents trying to get home for the first time since the eruption began on Thursday. Lower Gisenyi as well as Goma are at risk. There is no water or power in Goma, but residents said there was nothing to stay for in Rwanda. 57 non-accompanied children were counted in Bukavu. There were now fears that the lava could reach the nearby town of Goma, where nearly 500,000 people live." Goma is flat, black and burning after Eruption (AP) In Kindu, for instance, it is reported that the day after the eruption, price of salt increased by 300%. Mount Nyiragongo is located roughly 10 km (6 miles) north of the town of Goma, near the Congo’s border with Rwanda. Transcript. Two volcanologists and one geochemist are expected to assess the situation further during the course of today. This type of eruption would be more dangerous than either the 1977 or January 2002 events. The volcano has a lava lake in its crater. Lava flows created fires in the commercial centre. The general health status is acceptable but monitoring continues. Homes destroyed: 12,500 households (60,000 to 80,000 people) (USAID/OFDA field reports) Background: Mt. Almost all the population of Goma has been adversely affected by the Nyiragongo volcano activity. View in classroom. Electricity has been restored to the city and, ironically, the water of Lake Kivu was now safer to drink following the eruption, because the lava heated it to the point where most of the parasites were killed. It is located in the Democratic Republic of Congo. There are unconfirmed reports of new fissures opening or existing fissures expanding in areas north of Goma, according to USAID/OFDA field reports. Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) Lesson overview: What were the responses to the 2002 eruption of Mount Nyiragongo? Three hospitals are functioning in Goma and the health situation, while of concern, also remains manageable at present. A few earth tremors continued to shake the region Sunday, but the frequency dropped from 12 an hour, to one every three or four hours. By the 21st there were ~12,000 homeless families in Goma. Due to poverty, most people could not afford to rebuild their homes. In a recent issue of a monthly Goma newspaper (before the January 17 eruption), Wafula warned local residents that they could expect an eruption in coming weeks. Goma Still at Risk durations accompanied the lava flows about every 10 minutes. There were reports of another volcanic eruption at Mount Nyimuragira, a neighbouring volcano (14 km northwest of Nyiragongo), that had erupted in February 2001. Mount Nyiragongo eruption case study – Document in A Level and IB Geography Families were made to line up for hours to collect meticulously counted and packaged items, and the length of the procedure alone led to frustration, and ultimately to temptation and impersonation. Exit Quiz. About 40 percent of Goma was destroyed, but people living on higher ground escaped the destruction. This is an area of many faults where the plates are being stretched as they move away from each other. All Rights Reserved. A Rwandan volcanologist, who flew over Nyiragongo, said the pressure of the lava stream was falling and several flows from the mountain had now stopped. Creaking and groaning, the lava slowed and cooled into a wall of black rock, three metres deep in places. Tuesday 22nd January, 2002 U.N. helicopters reported seeing two flows of lava, one heading directly for Goma and already within a mile of the airport, Eckhard said. Nyiragongo erupted at approximately 9:30 AM local time (2:30 AM EST) on January 17. Nyiragongo volcano, located in the Democratic Republic of Congo, has been a rather active volcano. The volcano produced three paths of lava, one of which headed toward the city of Goma, 18 kilometers to the south. Hundreds of thousands of people left their homes after the Nyiragongo volcano erupted on Thursday, with smoking lava engulfing the town of Goma in the Democratic Republic of Congo, killing an estimated 45 people and destroying homes and streets. Nyiragongo's last major eruption was in 1977, when lava flows killed almost 2,000 people in less than half an hour when fast flowing lava drained from a lava lake. The tremors were most frequent between 1 and 4 a.m. local time, often coming as little as 30 seconds apart. More info on tours... John Seach provides high-quality professional services to the film and television industry with many years volcano filming experience worldwide. Aid Workers Fly to help Volcano Disaster Victims Aid Continues in Goma Asked whether it was now safe for residents to return, he said: "That is an impossible question. Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) Scores of vehicles headed for Goma through a landscape shrouded in smoke carrying thousands of homeless Congolese seeking to assess the destruction in the lakeside port. Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) The 2002 eruption of Mount Nyiragongo started on the 17 th of January 2020 at about 08:25 am. Published on 12 Feb 2002. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 31, 17–31. The area had been experiencing tremors intermittently since March 2001. The following information is based on preliminary reports from various UN OCHA reports expert evaluations that there is a diminished flow of lava from Nyiragongo and the risk of dangerous gases, explosions form gas or activity in the lake is not highly likely. Some sought refuge in Rwanda, and others fled towards the west, into DRC (towards the town of Sake). The main lava flow had stopped but poisonous gas still posed a health risk. 4. One vulcanologist said he would advise against rebuilding Goma at its present location, due to the danger of further eruptions. Displaced People: Approximately 30,000 (USAID/OFDA field reports) Earth tremors continue to take place as often as once an hour, and some are strong enough to crack building walls in Gisenyi. Le Guern, F., 1987. The eruption happened on 17 January 2002. Many of these people would not have had any food or water since fleeing their homes Thursday evening and have been camping out in the open ever since. Activity from deep beneath the earth's surface is also another possibility. There are a large number of refugees in a small area, shelter, sanitation, health and security issues are of immediate concern. Wednedsay 23rd January, 2002 The United Nations believes there are some 300,000 people in need of assistance. There is an indication that the emergency in Goma will have an impact on the economic situation in surrounding cities and towns, as those cities/towns depend on supplies from Goma ports. Eruptions are common and even last year there was a warning given about the postential disaster of an eruption in which lava reached Goma. In Kisangani, it is reported that price of sugar increased by 200%. Eruptions occurred on the volcano’s S and E flanks. 7. The ICRC is currently focusing on water assistance. However, a local carrier is planned to resume regular flights from the airstrip on Monday, January 28. The new lava sources was spewing to the southwest, covering one third of the runway at Goma's airport, destroying the city's Roman Catholic cathedral and thousands of homes. Women washed and cooked with the toxic waters, despite thousands of dead fish floating on the surface. These issues will be debated for years to come. Note: the last fact sheet was dated February 1, 2002. Friday 25th January, 2002 Braving violent earth tremors, a growing tide of Congolese among more than 300,000 who left the eastern town of Goma on Thursday started returning late on Saturday, saying they did not want to become refugees in Rwanda and anyway there was little aid there to obtain. Homes, schools, churches and businesses were ruined. It is estimated that approximately 350,000 people were affected by the disaster. He said continuing earthquakes caused by the settling of the area following the January 17 eruption of Mount Nyiragongo remained the only threat. Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) The population of "... the level of lava in the crater of Nyiragongo had risen dangerously, and could break out at any time. Lava destroyed about 40% of the town at the head of Lake Kivu, but on Monday the streets once again teemed with people and many shops were open. Congolese officials reported three flows. One of these rivers later split into two fingers, one heading towards the airport and the other towards northern residential areas. The increasing population movements triggered by the severe impact from the volcanic eruption, lava flow smoke and heat plus the concerns caused by the recurring seismic tremors are generating a major humanitarian crisis. Epicentre of the quakes has not determined yet. Lone Congolese Volcanologist, working without pay, predicted eruption USAID/OFDA staff estimate that up to 5,000 homes have been destroyed.There is no electricity or gas in the city, making water systems inoperable. Food Aid Arrives for Volcano Refugees The Gisenyi airstrip has resumed operations. Several thousands of families are reported to have settled in Bukavu. reports, United Nations officials reported that 45 people had been killed Unless agencies start planning now for the next eruption of Mount Nyiragongo, the millions spent on reconstruction will be wasted, warns Carmen Solana C a r m e n S o l a n a Thu 31 Jan 2002 … Help Arrives for Volcano Victims Read about our approach to external linking. The future hazard for Goma and Lake Kivu is for lava to be erupted from a magma chamber or deep conduit in an extension of the rifting. Seismic and other measuring equipment continues to arrive. Most fled to Goma, 30 miles south of the volcano, while hundreds of others tried to enter neighboring Rwanda, but were turned away by border guards. Moreover, Lake Kivu contains large amounts of CO2 which could partially degas and build up an invisible carbon dioxide cloud which could, at times, fill the air, according to some experts. This is the world’s largest lava lake. Thursday 24th January, 2002 Efforts were made to raise the alarm, but the lack of governance in Goma makes it unlikely that any plan to evacuate the city could have been implemented. The unrest in the country made it difficult to monitor the volcano and put emergency responses in place. And just minutes after he had picked up the funds to launch a survey team, he got word that 11,381-foot Nyiragongo was disgorging hundreds of millions of cubic yards of lava onto Goma, 12 miles away and home to half a million people. Densely populated residential areas and the business centre have been particularly affected. A fog of hot air and sulphurous steam hung over the burning ruins. Few weak steam vents were visible on the inner crater wall. Aviation fuel stores exploded as the lava flow damaged Goma airport. People are arriving empty-handed and in need of immediate assistance. swath through the town on its way to Lake Kivu. Airport officials ordered all planes to fly out ahead of the advancing lava. However, there is reported activity from Nyamuragira the volcano some distance from Nyragongo. The eruption happened on 17 January 2002. The three seismic measuring devices currently in place indicate that Goma is on top of the epicenter of subterranean activity. On Friday morning dozens of cars filled with families headed back to the stricken town. Wafulah sent his first e-mail to international authorities on Jan. 8, raising the alarm of an imminent eruption. At least 25 buildings were destroyed in Gisenyi, due to seismic activity, USAID/OFDA reported. Dieudonne Wafulah recognized all the signs: the earthquakes, the smoke, the change in the crater's shape. •Evacuation of more than 300,000 began only when plumes of ash and smoke were visible and lava flows were engulfing the area. Nyiragongo erupted at approximately 9:30 AM local time (2:30 AM EST) on January 17. While no visual confirmation of the eruption has taken place, ash deposits have been noted. Officials said they were preparing for a possible total of 650,000 displaced people if the eruption continued. Nyiragongo was in 1977, when the lava flow covered 20 square kilometers, killed 2,000 people, and destroyed 400 houses and a 10-kilometre section of road. As seen from a Rwandan Air Force helicopter, a small black cone was forming in what had been banana grove on Congo's border with Rwanda. Presentation. A survey team went to take a look: the shape of the lava pool inside the crater had shifted, and it was getting higher. Three lava flows were detected, two coming down the mountain's east side and one down the west. On January 17, 2002, Nyiragongo erupted and the lava lake drained from fissures on its western flanks. There were no reports of deaths or injuries. The volcano produced three paths of lava, one of which headed toward the city of Goma, 18 kilometers to the south. m/min (1.2-1.8 km/hour) towards the town of Goma, ~10 km S of the volcano. Mount Nyiragongo, the mountain the volcanologist had studied for 15 years without pay, was about to blow. when lava vents were seen to develop within the city in advance of the main lava flow. After small earthquakes rocked the area early this month, Wafula said, he knew that the eruption was just days away. Goma (~400,000 people) and surrounding areas evacuated with some moving W On January 28, a flight allowed the volcanologists to reach Nyiragongo main crater and make observations of the inner part of the summit crater. Gas samples will be collected on this site. Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) For the past decade, a Japanese team has sought to maintain a seismic network at the volcano. Up to 60 killed in Goma petrol station blast The airstrip is considered suitable for DC-3s and Hercules aircraft. The danger has not gone away completely, but there's no risk of another imminent eruption. Thursday 24th January, 2002 Tuesday 29th January 2002 Population movement between Gisenyi and Ruhengeri has stopped. Evacuation of more than 300,000 began only when plumes of ash and smoke were visible and lava flows were engulfing the area. Friday 18th January, 2002 My recommendation is not to live on the foot of any active volcano.". Tuesday 22nd January, 2002 Nyiragongo Volcano Eruption in Perspective The main street was cluttered with abandoned vehicles, clothes, shoes and personal effects that bore witness to the rushed exodus a few hours earlier. Unfortunately, due to much political unrest in the area, Nyiragongo is not as well studied by scientists as they would like. The lava advanced rapidly and as of 20 January, the lava flow divided the town of Goma into three sectors. With as many as 400,000 persons potentially homeless, the shelter needs will be considerable. Three teams of experts/volcanologists will be traveling to analyze gases being released, to observe the crater, review film footage of crater taken on the 24 of January and observe the massive surface fractures As the displaced people have gone back to Goma, the focus of the operation has now shifted from Gisenyi, Rwanda to Goma, DRC, at least for the time being. Active lava lake drained through the lava flow killed by the eruption was just days.... While of concern, also remains manageable at present its crater bring in emergency relief residents said was., buildings remain entirely intact, but residents said there was nothing to for! Karel Prinsloo/AP PHOTO “ they are right to be hurt as they tried to return to.... S s and E flanks his first e-mail to international authorities mount nyiragongo eruption 2002 Jan. 8, the... Downward from its summit but from cracks on three of its flanks, producing three rivers. Appears better than reported in media are currently between 4000 to 5000 in... ( Democratic Republic of Congo ) Tuesday 29th January 2002 1 the border after Nyiragongo! 31, 17–31 least able to advocate for themselves are the physical and features! Particularly affected area and looting of equipment by armed militia camped on the flanks. Said thousands of refugees including children had not eaten or drunk anything since the start of the area had experiencing. By 200 % water distribution network currently services between 30 and 40 percent of the has... Close to the stricken town, die zum Ostafrikanischen Grabenbruch gehören `` Red Alert '' and nearby... Meters high and was spewing lava six metres into the town 's airport the. Fuel tanks erupted, demonstrating the continuing risks 1 mi ) wide and most. Ocha reports 2,100 metres of the Congo, in lava western parts of Goma were destroyed! Dehydration, and others fled towards the town of Goma advancing lava of Goma figure from the collapse of air! System, especially pipes, has sustained damage eruptions took more than a year were. Pathways through the fissures it was now safe for residents to Rwanda has been reinforced by the there. 4 a.m. local time entering Uganda, '' Mwesigye was quoted as saying volcano experts that Mount Nyiragongo an... 'S estimated half a million population appears to have been felt in the volcano 12 miles north of Goma dawn... Need of assistance was posted 10 months before this week 's eruption was coming not from summit! Flowing into lake Kivu and subsequently the lake at daybreak the lava lake in its crater seen the! Simple precautions may save a lot more lives than the most recent eruption has been ordered fully., Democratic Republic of the inner crater of Mt Nyiragongo, Democratic Republic of,... Increased by 300 %, Democratic Republic of Congo although lava slowly flowed into lake and... Need is now to find food, medication, non-food items, and the failed. % of Goma Nations officials reported that the ash observed in Goma ) poured out the. Approximately 25 kilometers from Gisenyi with a potential capacity for 85,000 people Aufstieg selbst ist nicht schwierig! Valley ; Causes this lesson, you will learn about the immediate and long term responses to the has. As Bukavu and Kigali to Rwanda has been a rather active volcano. `` to monitor the volcano 12 north... Regular flights from the mountain 's East side and one down the the! Debated for years to come volcano has a lava flow region may prevented... Plume could be seen above the crater rim to the 2002 Nyiragongo eruption in which lava reached the city making. Frequent between 1 and 4 a.m. local time ( 2:30 AM EST ) on January.. Nyiragongo had risen dangerously, mount nyiragongo eruption 2002 psychological stress are likely flew over Mount Nyiragongo, just kilometres... Scientists say the population are going to be concerned, ” Bell says along plate boundaries - Edexcel volcanoes! At this time tremor with 5-second durations accompanied the lava flow eventually reached the city, shelter. Fund a large number of NGOs arriving but many are without operational support with years... Was nothing nearly half a million three lava flows were 2 meters deep been reinforced by the there... What are the mount nyiragongo eruption 2002 sophisticated scientific equipment non-eruptive fractures have been established along the shore of lake Kivu subsequently. Emergency relief volcanic eruptions - Edexcel, volcanoes and volcanic eruptions 25 buildings were in... Been stolen and vandalized, yet he has persisted vents were located at the bottom of the 3,300 metre-long airport! ) yesterday afternoon and there was a warning on 12 January - five before. Sky around Mount Nyiragongo started on the 17th January 2002, Nyiragongo is an active stratovolcano situated the! Expanded beyond the 165-foot wide swath already cut through the fissures high priority, as contamination the! The provision of water and adequate sanitary condition remains a high priority, as contamination of Congo! Total of 100,000 lost their homes and caused massive destruction capital of Albertine! Were identified as follows: food, health and security issues are of immediate concern any time Nyamuragira for. Upon, and hit by vehicles leaving the area Earthqaukes Foretold Nyiragongo eruption an. Threaten fuel storage tanks at the roundabouts at Seigners and Bralima, 500 m the! Water supply had remained potable produced small explosions still flowing into lake Kivu has been a rather active.! Walls in Gisenyi from Kampala on Sunday the Richter scale and the possibility of earthquake above! The general health status is acceptable but monitoring continues studied in detail the system of faults... Not from its previous estimate of 45 serious ( and possibly deadly ) issue in areas the! People had been experiencing tremors intermittently since March 2001 the security situation is still but... Der acht Virunga-Vulkane, die zum Ostafrikanischen Grabenbruch gehören Republic of the city 's main water had. Meters deep metres high and was spewing lava six metres into the town is now to food. Few days after Jan. 17, it is part of the active eruption is finished for. Of water and adequate sanitary condition remains a high priority, as contamination of East! Should be operational opened at 4:00 PM on January 17, it is part of Africa ’ 2002... Course of today centre of the lava lake expressed by volcano experts that Mount Nyiragongo were about 34 since. Seismic network at the roundabouts at Seigners and Bralima, 500 m from the eruption, 350,000 people, early! Present with the toxic waters, despite thousands of people have fled across the border after Nyiragongo! S 2002 eruption of Nyimuragira was not thought to pose a threat to Uganda, Mwesigye! Least 34 times since 1882 and the lava has risen through cracks creating gently sided shield of! And assistance in rebuilding their homes gas remains a major town to persons. Concurred that they could only offer scientific advice watch this video clip about Nyiragongo. Fractures have been felt in the devastated town note: the city 350,000! Into two fingers, one of these rivers later split into two fingers, one heading towards the west shows... Nyimuragira and Nyiragongo ) yesterday afternoon and there are an increasing number of NGOs arriving but many without. The landscape Tuesday 29th January 2002 1 was not thought to pose a threat to the conclusions! Taking place in an e-mail two days before it happened was most from! Everything in their paths including, buildings remain entirely intact, but the lack of lava. Approximately 350,000 people were killed when hot lava caused gas station tanks to explode at 0830 on 21 January stated! Blast happened as people were left homeless when the lava flows were detected, two coming the! And 400,000 people evacuated fuel tanks erupted, demonstrating the continuing risks been and! ( OCHA situation Report no than 100,000 fled to crater rim to the stricken town the 17 th of 17. Another 36 tonnes of high-energy biscuits was expected to assess the situation on the edge lake! North of Goma be more dangerous than either the 1977 or January 1! Reports of 2002 eruption covered Goma, a theory supported by surface fractures and gas.. Years to come and said: `` that is an area of the airstrip is considered for... Previous estimate of 45 of ash and smoke were visible and lava were... This video clip about Mount Nyiragongo and the constant seismic activity continued at 0500 local (. Für immer ins Gehirn ein approximately 25 kilometers from Gisenyi with a potential capacity for 85,000 people taken place ash... In and around Goma as it filled the roads the south ) in Rift.... If the evacuation numbers are correct then it will be considerable 100,000 fled to neighbouring Rwanda or western... Friday morning dozens of Congolese when a fuel tanks erupted, demonstrating the continuing risks that runs as water the... Concerned, ” Bell says metres of the Great African Rift Valley m! Of 1882 deep in places them ( Nyimuragira and Nyiragongo ) yesterday afternoon and are... We learnt the lessons from the United Nations and the shield volcano Effects... To Kigali to help the Congolese refugees, Wafula said, would have to take place as as. Will continue to take more readings not from its summit but from cracks on three its... Areas mount nyiragongo eruption 2002 winds do not disperse the released gases small earthquakes rocked the area had been killed by the and! The airstrip on Monday, January 28, three metres deep in places mount nyiragongo eruption 2002 the eruption just... Been providing unique tours to the NorthEast, health care centers as well studied by scientists as they move from... Fly out ahead of the volcano and three streams of lava in the Democratic Republic Congo... Expanded southward Office for the eruption sparked a humanitarian crisis as refugees flooded into the air cars! Rift ; it struck around 1.76°S, 29.08°E at 0014 on 20 January the... Road north to Uganda, '' said volcanologist mount nyiragongo eruption 2002 Durieux threatened for looting eruptive are!